California, already populated by multiple Native American cultural groups, with the arrival of these newer immigrants became a model of diversity that continues to the present day.
California, already populated by multiple Native American cultural groups, with the arrival of these newer immigrants became a model of diversity that continues to the present day.Tags: Examples Of Literature Reviews In NursingPurpose Of Writing A Reflective EssayProposing Solution EssayCompass Test EssayInvestor Ready Business PlanMath Problem Solving BooksWhat Do You Mean By Review Of LiteratureGuidelines In Writing A Research PaperAbout Persuasive EssayExample Of Mla Research Paper With Citations
Spanish expectations for women were by and large those that crossed national and cultural lines: westering women were to be pious, pure, domestic, and modest, whether they were English, French, or Spanish-Mexican.
There were, however, some exceptions to the general patterns of behavior and family composition expected of all women regardless of their social class.
Rations were short, finding potable water was difficult, people and livestock sickened, and many of the animals weakened or died.
Despite the adverse conditions, Anza arrived at Monterey, California, with two more people than he had enlisted for the long journey to Alta California, three of whom were born on the trail.
Maria Feliciana Arballo was born into a wealthy family in Spain and was only twenty years old when she and her mestizo husband signed on to travel with Anza.
In part, the journey to California would have helped them to escape the rigid class society in established parts of the Spanish empire that denigrated her husband on the basis of color and race.Such a successful outcome overland to California was never equaled—before, during, or after the Gold Rush—and had the thirteen diaries penned on his two expeditions been written in English rather than Spanish, Anza would today be known throughout the world as a famous leader and the names of some of the remarkable women who traveled with him would be remembered.Although none of the women traveling north from Mexico left written journals of their thoughts, feelings, and experiences on the trail, fascinating vignettes can be extracted from the diaries kept by the men who accompanied them.The opening of the trail was maintained by preserving friendly relations with the Indians in its vicinity.A continuing need for settlers to protect Spanish interests in the region led to his most stunning success—shepherding 240 men, women, and children, including seven infants under the age of eight months, across the desert and up the California coast. Winter came unusually early that year; it was unseasonably cold with a record-breaking amount of snow and ice and the colonists, used to the warm climate of Mexico, were unprepared for the hardships they faced.For example, we know that, because the primary purpose of the 1775 expedition was to populate Spanish California, Anza actively recruited young married couples and that three marriages took place along the way.The ideal of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century womanhood influenced the recruitment of suitable colonists from among the poorer Mexican families.There is, however, an abundance of written source material about the second wave of immigrants who settled the borderlands in the northernmost portion of the Spanish empire.Incursions by the British and Russians, and the fear that others might attempt to claim additional areas of the North American continent, motivated Spain to create a strong military and human presence along the California coast.Between 17, twenty missions, four presidios (forts), and three civil communities known as pueblos were built, stretching from San Diego to just north of San Francisco.From the beginning, families were sent to these outposts for the express purpose of increasing the population of Spanish citizens.