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Once exercise has started, the demand for energy increases and the stored supply of ATP is used up in a couple of seconds.If continued muscular contraction is to take place, ATP has to be reformed from ADP once it has been used up. The body has three systems for doing this, which are collectively known as energy systems – there are two anaerobic and one aerobic system.The ADP uses energy formed from the breakdown of carbohydrates (glycogen or glucose) to produce ATP. As lactic acid accumulates in the muscle, muscular contraction becomes more difficult.
It takes some time for oxygen to get into the blood and then to working muscles.
The lactic acid system of energy production is used when oxygen is not available and when stores of creatine phosphate run out (after approximately 10 seconds).
This system allows the body to work in a steady state – the muscles work below maximal effort and keep this going for a long period of time.
Carbon dioxide and water are produced as by-products.
It is used when there is a plentiful supply of oxygen for the muscles to use while working. This system starts to ‘kick-in’ after about 3 minutes and theoretically will go on for ever.
Rogerian Style Essay - Anaerobic Resynthesis Of Atp
The ADP formed during energy production uses energy from glucose/glycogen (carbohydrates), fat or protein breakdown to reform ATP.
CP is also stored in the muscle fibres in small amounts, and although ATP can be reformed very quickly using this method, it cannot be kept up for very long, as the stores of CP are used up in 6-10 seconds.
ATP → ADP P energy (for movement) CP → C P energy (to resynthesize ATP) ADP P energy → ATP The CP system is used for activities that need bursts of explosive speed or power such as sprinting, jumping and throwing.
With continued high intensity exercise, there is a build-up of lactic acid in the working muscles.
If the rate of build-up is greater than the rate of removal then the muscles become fatigued and muscle contraction becomes impaired.