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Even if a nuclear weapon were never again exploded over a city, there are intolerable effects from the production, testing and deployment of nuclear arsenals that are experienced as an ongoing personal and community catastrophe by many people around the globe.This humanitarian harm, too, must inform and motivate efforts to outlaw and eradicate nuclear weapons.At last, they had concluded a "series of agreements that defused the nuclear rivalry between the two countries and committed both to exclusively peaceful use of nuclear technology." Across the world, in South Asia, India and Pakistan have been involved in a nuclear arms race that has outlasted the Cold War.
Though the strained relations between Brazil and Argentina peaked in the late 1970s, the "rivalry and subtle tensions between the two countries can be traced back to colonial days." As Brazil gained international recognition in the 20th century, Argentina accelerated its nuclear program in an effort to check its rival's burgeoning power.
Argentina's nuclear program advanced quickly and "by the early 1980s was thought to be about five years ahead of Brazil in having the capability to produce material suitable for a nuclear weapon." Recognizing Argentina as a viable threat, Brazil consequently increased its nuclear capabilities; the nationalism and rivalry between the two Latin nations had become an essential part of the countries' nuclear arsenals.
Nations still cling to the misguided idea of “nuclear deterrence”, when it is clear that nuclear weapons only cause national and global insecurity.
There have been many documented instances of the near-use of nuclear weapons as a result of miscalculation or accidents.
Since the mid-1950s, India has been threatened by its neighbors Pakistan and China.
China detonated its first nuclear bomb in October 1964, and—not coincidentally—India was the next country to follow, in May 1974.
The abolition of nuclear weapons is an urgent humanitarian necessity.
Any use of nuclear weapons would have catastrophic consequences.
While countries such as Brazil and Argentina have dismantled their programs rapidly and successfully, other nuclear states—such as India and Pakistan—have been unable to defuse their strained relations and remain nuclear competitors.
These two situations reveal that disarmament is most successful when the international community supports—rather than interferes with—bilateral collaboration and, most importantly, when the decision to disarm is primarily autonomous and self-motivated.