In the course of her calling attention to the features of the story that work to produce certain effects, she has occasion as well to call attention to the conventions the author takes for granted that readers will be working under if they are to produce these effects (infer these meanings, have these reactions) on the basis of the facts she chooses and arranges to construct what the narrator explicitly conveys.
And she has to shape the particular way in which she develops each of these theses in such a way that we can see how the features of point of view that shes calling attention to make possible the features of the theme shes calling attention to.
Professors tend to be very harsh on grading this type of essay simply because explication essays are never longer than 1000 words, so students have to take time and use their professional writing skills to write a true masterpiece in a few words.
To explicate an essay or paper one has to slowly unfold the meaning of text, moving slowly from passage to passage.
Once the writing started, students can proceed with the line-by-line explication.
One can also use another approach to explicating text and start with the general assessment of the plot of the story, paying much attention to background and exposition.
Things like the climax, denouement and resolution are to follow.
The key is to demonstrate the crafting of the overall plot of the story and how the chosen excerpts reinforces the major theme of the story or verse.
The first step is to choose that passage from one of the choices given by your college or university professor.
The next step is to identify key scenes, a statement of theme, a crucial conservation as well as opening and closing sections of the chosen piece of literature.