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Domestic violence is a violation of human rights with damaging social, economic and health consequences.It is any incident of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse.That abuse can be psychological, emotional, physical, sexual and financial.
(For research on the relatively higher violence rates among gay men, see the 2012 study “Intimate Partner Violence and Social Pressure among Gay Men in Six Countries.”) In terms of victim response, social scientists continue to examine factors that might predict when women may feel empowered to report abuse and leave relationships. Perhaps abusive men feel threatened by successful wives, which then increases divorce risk.
A 2013 study published in the Journal of Marriage and Family, “Women’s Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective,” analyzes a nationally representative sample of more than 900 young U. women to look at factors that make females more likely to leave abusive relationships. Nonabusive men may not feel threatened and thus stay with successful women.” On this point, more research is required.
Related research: A 2015 study titled “When War Comes Home: The Effect of Combat Service on Domestic Violence” suggests that multiple deployments and longer deployment lengths may increase the chance of family violence. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994-2010,” provides a broad picture of such crimes across American society, examining the demographics of both victims and offenders.
A June 2014 study published in the , “Intimate Partner Violence Before and During Pregnancy: Related Demographic and Psychosocial Factors and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Among Mexican American Women,” provides a snapshot of domestic violence in a community sample of low-income Hispanic women. Regarding the issue of IPV prevention, a 2003 metastudy published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), “Interventions for Violence Against Women: Scientific Review,” found that “information about evidence-based approaches in the primary care setting for preventing IPV is seriously lacking….in the United States have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime.” That survey was subsequently updated in September 2014.The findings, based on telephone surveys with more than 12,000 people in 2011, include: The lifetime prevalence of physical violence by an intimate partner was an estimated 31.5% among women and in the 12 months before taking the survey, an estimated 4.0% of women experienced some form of physical violence by an intimate partner.Citation: Kreager, Derek A.; Felson, Richard B.; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R. “Women's Education, Marital Violence and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. This figure is supported by the findings of a 2013 peer-reviewed metastudy — the most rigorous form of research analysis — published in the leading academic journal Science.That metastudy found that “in 2010, 30.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27.8 to 32.2%] of women aged 15 and over have experienced, during their lifetime, physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence.” The prevalence found among high-income regions in North America was 21.3%.Of course, under-reporting remains a substantial problem in this research area.In 2010, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, conducted by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, found that “more than 1 in 3 women (35.6%) …Although knowledge of the problem and its scope have deepened, the issue remains a major health and social problem afflicting women.In November 2014 the World Health Organization estimated that 35% of all women have experienced either intimate partner violence or sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetimes.