Hence, to reduce the use or dose of chemicals, one possibility is to utilize the disease suppressing activity of certain microorganisms which should be highly antagonistic against the targeted soil borne plant pathogens.
Moreover, some efficacious pesticides have been banned for use in agriculture (Table 1, 2). Resveratrol production as a part of the hypersensitive-like response of grapevine cells to an elicitor from Trichoderma viride.
have been characterized as biocontrol agents of plant pathogens since the 1930s.
The use of biologicals for disease management has increased in recent years, typically marketed as a safer alternative to chemical applications.
As most of the soil borne plant pathogens are fungi, biocontrol by fungi has been attempted extensively (Henis et al., 1979; Baker, 1987; Suarez et al., 2004). as biocontrol agents was suggested more than 75 years ago by Weindling (1932) who was the first to demonstrate the parasitic activity of members of this genus to pathogens such as R. Trichoderma is perhaps the best known mycoparasite suggested as a biocontrol agent against many soil borne plant pathogens (Table 3).
Trichoderma species are among the most frequently isolated soil fungi and present in plant root ecosystems (Harman et al., 2004). Factors influencing biocontrol agent: Rhizosphere competence: Rhizosphere competence is the ability to colonize and grow in association with plant roots. Surprisingly, in the Rhizoctonia root rot trials, the soybean seedlings treated with ≤ 0.10) reduced frogeye leaf spot severity of soybean compared to a non-treated control. Wiley Online Library requires cookies for authentication and use of other site features; therefore, cookies must be enabled to browse the site.Various microorganisms viz., fungi, bacteria, mycorrhizae etc. have been tested for their ability to suppress plant pathogens. With the advent of chemical compounds it was thought that a permanent and reliable solution of soil borne plant pathogens have been achieved but it was realized that pesticide application is not safe to the environment as the toxicants cause environmental pollution and has harmful effects on human beings. Some of the important soil borne plant pathogens such as Pythium, Phytopthora, Botrytis, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium and Meloidogyne has spread very fast and have detrimental effects on crops of economic importance. In: The Mycota, Environmental and Microbial Relationships, Wicklow, D. G.) Ten isolates of Trichoderma harzianum / Trichoderma viride were isolated from soil collected from different geographical area and locations of Bilaspur and Sarguja division .Nine isolates were characterized as Trichoderma harzianum and one as Trichoderma viride based on cultural and morphological characteristics. Despite realization of adverse effects of chemical pesticides on plants, animals and environment they are being applied indiscriminately to control soil borne plant pathogens. Unfortunately to control a target soil borne plant pathogen with a pesticide, over 100 species of non target organisms are adversely affected (Alabouvette and Couteadier, 1992).